Working definitions of sustainability will come with time as research and practice enable more precise evaluation of the concepts and components of agricultural sustainability. Food production worldwide has risen in the past 50 years; the World Bank estimates that between 70 percent and 90 percent of the recent increases in food production are the result of conventional agriculture rather than greater acreage under cultivation. NAL Call # S441 P58 1995]. J. Alt. Log in here for access. Francis, C.B. Already registered? Available at: http://www.panna.org/resources/documents/fieldsSum.dv.html (8/23/07). 2. Agriculture profoundly affects many ecological systems. This limits the risk of people becoming ill from exposure to these chemicals. Unfortunately, the majority of food we consume is produced using industrialized agriculture, which is a type of agriculture where large quantities of crops and livestock are produced through industrial techniques for the purpose of sale. Now, let's review sustainable agriculture and the benefits and issues associated with this type of farming. After all, who would advocate a ‘non-sustainable agriculture?’" [Charles A. Francis, "Sustainable Agriculture: Myths and Realities," Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (1990) 1(1): p.97. [Secretary’s Memorandum 9500-6: Sustainable Development (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Secretary, Sept. 13, 1996)]. 19 chapters | Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The higher prices are due to the increase in human labor to produce the crops and the increased nutritional value of the produce. One of the main concerns is that sustainable agriculture does not produce as much food as industrialized agriculture. Economically, the U.S. agricultural sector includes a history of increasingly large federal expenditures and corresponding government involvement in planting and investment decisions; widening disparity among farmer incomes; and escalating concentration of agribusiness—industries involved with manufacture, processing, and distribution of farm products—into fewer and fewer hands. At the same time, new policies and institution must be created to enable producers using sustainable practices to market their goods to a wider public." Under that law, "the term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: [Subchapter I: Findings, Purposes, and Definitions, U.S. Code, Title 7, Chapter 64-Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching, Available at GPO Access: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=browse_usc&docid=Cite:+7USC3103 (8/23/07)]. Available at USDA Website: http://www.info.usda.gov/default.aspx?l=176 Select Title 180; Part 407 - Sustainable Agriculture; Subpart A - General. (SAREP, 1998). Available at SAREP Website: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/concept.htm (8/23/07)]. "Environmental sustainability implies the following: "An environmentally sustainable agriculture is one that is compatible with and supportive of the above criteria. Sustainability has become an integral component of many government, commercial, and non-profit agriculture research efforts, and it is beginning to be woven into agricultural policy. In the case of livestock, most production comes from confined, concentrated systems. Chapters 1 and 2. NAL Call #: S494.5 S86S8]. ‹I guess that the main thing people get defensive about when you say sustainable,’ explained one agent, ‘is that it implies that what they’ve been doing is not sustainable. Developed countries. What intrinsically American values have changed and will change with the decline of rural life and farmland ownership? Learn about our remote access options, Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011. Some of the most common techniques include growing plants that can create their own nutrients to reduce the use of fertilizers and rotating crops in fields, which minimizes pesticide use because the crops are changing frequently.