However, there is a form of utopia that not only operates from a conjoining of past, present and future, but in doing so avoids the conception of utopia as an ahistorical abstraction that is either hopelessly impractical or dangerously idealistic, or both, a position argued most forcefully by Marx and Engels in The Communist Manifesto. Their original purpose was to entertain and to receive payment for it; but seen in retrospect their effect, their function was then regarded as significant and of importance. The fence, being barbed wire, carries the connotation of more than enclosure. And the spectator of a tragedy or the reader of a novel is also said to experience release and relief. Referring to the function of literature to delight and to move, De Quincey made the distinction between the literature of knowledge, and the literature of, —“The function of the first is to teach” the function of the second is to move.”, Besides giving pleasure or entertaining or moving the readers, literature is supposed to have other functions as well. In the words of Darwish: I believe that the unwavering commitment to resistance and defence is not some sort of nostalgia, but the saturation of the present and future with the past, without which neither present nor future will come to be. The following are some of the most important functions of literature in the society. The palimpsest of the painting inscribes not only a spatial history, but also a gradation of modes of representation, modes of seeing and being in place. It is probable that all art is “sweet” and “useful” to its appropriate users. 6. But this is surely not only the case for literary works alone. People spend a lot of time looking for something that really brings them pleasure, and literature is something that gives joy. It creates awareness on different social political and economic matters taking place in their societies. In doing this, Sansour’s utopia avoids the trap of transcendental abstraction or hopeless impracticality that might come from being quarantined in the future. voiced the opinion of Longinus when he said that the chief function of literature is to “move” “I never heard the old song of, ,” he declared, “that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet”. We can agree with a point of view of the author and we can disagree with it altogether. All cultural aspects like traditions, beliefs, customs, norms etc are expressed so that the society may cherish the good ones and carry them over to the next generations, and modify or discard the outdated ones. Its appeal is not through the reason, but what we should call imagination. The issue of the flag on which the Union Jack has prominent place was associated with this debate and demonstrated Australia’s tenacious colonial status, one vigorously opposed by Aboriginal people. We can drop the illusion that the category literature is objective. Excellent .. This position nowhere, and thus potentially outside ideology, is crucial to art and literature. Barmah Forest (1994), 183 x 244 cm. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica The scope of literature. Literature helps us to notice everything beautiful around us. Literature is used to liberate people mentally and physically. African slaves were unable to transport their culture or their languages with them to the plantations in any coherent way. Instruction may result from the reading of poetry, but it is not the end: for ‘poesy only instructs as it delights”. In the words of Darwish again: To resist means—to be confident of the health of your heart, ( Log Out /  Its effect upon the mind is immediate, like a flash of lightning upon the eye. It is also divided into so many kinds like; Poetry, Novel, Short Story, Drama, Fiction, Non-Fiction etc. Function and content of hope are experienced continuously, and in times of rising societies [revolutions] they have been continuously activated and extended. Literature shows how society works around them. All literary works are rewritten, in only unconsciously by the societies that read them. But the striking thing about this very large painting is the ease with which it employs a Western aesthetic while at the same moment undercutting the ocularcentrism of Western representation. The way in which political oppression works is to lock the oppressed into a myth of binary opposition. The ways in which what we say and believe connects with the power structure and power relations of the society we live in. One of the primary purposes of literature is to examine how these questions have been answered or addressed by authors and their protagonists. This is what Mahmoud Darwish sees as the saturation of the present and future in the past. In the rear-vision mirror of the truck, which flies the colours of the Aboriginal flag, on the way to Redfern is the image of the rainbow serpent, demonstrating the ways in which the past infuses the present to produce a hopeful future. It can be concluded that literature is a storehouse of human knowledge in a printed and accessible form. Sometimes we underestimate the importance of literature in our lives, but thanks to it, we can learn new things about the world, experience emotions, both good and bad and many more. But I’m an optimist for exactly the same reason. The postcard identifies Palestine as a destination—an actual identifiable place in the world before the Nakba—and out of the reality of the country as a destination emerges the utopian concept of destiny. In short, Literature is what a piece of text has artistic or intellectual value with a distinct language different from ordinary one. Indeed, conflict begins with the refusal to listen. They reminded the great concourse of Athenian citizens of the traditional gods and heroes of history. The insistent struggle for democracy has not resulted in notable success. For those Caribbean writers and artists working in the borderland of language, race, and identity, the past is the constant sign of the future. Emotions represented in literature are, neither for writer nor for reader, the same emotions in “real life”. We can learn many new things about the world with its help; we can fill ourselves with knowledge and become smarter. if you need premium accounts at cheapest rate inbox me on my Facebook page at: Premium Palace, Subscribe my YouTube channel at: The Stream Post, Your email address will not be published. Although the present may be seen as a continuous stream of prospections becoming retrospections, the sense that the past has gone and the future is coming separates what may be called the three phases of time: past, present and future. It creates awareness on different social political and economic matters taking place in … Pessimism means things are getting messy. In the original sense of the word they were ‘political’. This material is available only on Freebooksummary, We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Critics have been discussing from very early times about the function or functions of literature. Again, if we look at the ballad writers and singers at a later date, we see that in their own way and in their own times, in traditional fashion, each celebrated events of social significance or the so-called ‘heroic’ exploits. The higher type of literature helps the reader to escape from trivial reality into significant reality. The importance of a perception of time in which past, present and future are conjoined or layered rather than separate and lost to each other is that it refutes one of the most trenchant critiques of utopia—its static nature. Limbo like me My claim here is that art and literature have the capacity to speak to power by speaking beyond it. Art and literature have a particular facility for projecting into the future. They are endlessly re-produced, endlessly remade with different political consequences and effects (Bennett 1979, 136). Thanks to books, articles, magazines, we have the opportunity to fill ourselves with new knowledge, cultivate good qualities and strive for something more. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Whether in the lobby, watering an olive tree or getting out of the lift at level 3, Jerusalem, Nation Estate is a grounded utopia because it is the utopia of the single state. The film festival has presented Palestine as a rich creative culture—one that existed despite the bombs, despite the unrelenting Israeli campaign of despair—in short, the sign of a national culture. 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